Silat Gayong, Seni Bela Diri dan Perisai Orang Melayu


( Indonesia ) 

Seni silat adalah sejenis ilmu bela diri yang diakui umum sebagai hak asli kepunyaan bangsa Melayu sebagai perisai diri. Berdasarkan bukti penemuan tinggalan

sejarah yang terdapat di Candi Borobodur dan Candi Prambanan di Jawa, dapatlah disimpulkan bahawa sudah wujud seni

mempertahankan diri ini di kawasan kepulauan Melayu pada abad ke-8 Masihi.

Bermula dari kepulauan Riau, sistem bela diri ini dikatakan merebak ke Minangkabau, Sumatera. Di Sumatera, seni pertempuran

ini diperhalusi lagi dan dikenali sebagai Pencak Silat. Ilmu silat ini pernah

digunakan oleh kerajaan Srivijaya (abad ke-7 hingga abad ke-14) untuk

memperluaskan empayarnya. Pada zaman kekuasaan Majapahit (abad ke-13 hingga
abad ke-16), ilmu silat dikatakan telah

mencapai kemuncak kesempurnaannya apabila penggunaan senjata disertakan.

Dari Minangkabau, silat diperkenalkan di Semenanjung Tanah Melayu melalui Melaka. Dalam zaman Kesultanan Melayu Melaka, hanya golongan yang rapat dengan

istana sahaja diberikan peluang untuk mempelajari silat. Seni silat ini akhirnya
sampai ke pengetahuan rakyat jelata dan

seterusnya menjadi suatu kesenian desa. Laksamana Hang Tuah (Bapa Persilatan
Melayu) dikatakan mempelajari seni silat daripada Sang Adi Putera di Gunung Ledang dan Sang Persanta Nala di Pulau Jawa (Majapahit).

Untuk menyempurnakan ilmu silat pengamal mestilah menghayati falsafah yang terkandung di dalam ilmu tersebut.

Pada zaman dulu hampir kesemua orang mengamalkan silat. Tetapi cuma beberapa

yang layak digelar pendekar. Hanya mereka yang mempunyai keutuhan akhlak dan berhemah tinggi mampu mencapai tahap ini.

Pada zaman ini wujud beratus-ratus perguruan silat. Setiap perguruan mempunyai gaya dan caranya yang

tersendiri. Tetapi umumnya asas silat ini boleh dibahagikan kepada dua iaitu 'bunga'
dan 'buah'. Seni bunga adalah gerak tari

yang lembut dan gemalai sebagai gerak untuk mengelirukan lawan. Manakala buah pula adalah gerak langkah yang keras,

padu dan padat untuk menumpaskan lawan. Tetapi ada perguruan yang tidak menghiraukan seni bunga dan hanya

mengajar buah, contohnya seperti Silat Cekak. Anak muridnya dikehendaki berdiri

tegak menghadapi lawan, pukul balas digunakan hanya ketika diserang dan itupun apabila pukulan sudah berada seinci dua dari badan.

Seni Silat Gayong dibawa ke Tanah Melayu (Malaysia) oleh seorang putera Bugis dari Kepulauan Sulawesi bernama Daeng Kuning

atau digelar Panglima Hitam. Beliau bersama-sama dengan enam saudaranya bermastautin di Tanah Melayu di mana segala ilmu persilatan diturunkan kepada

keturunannya. Pada masa ini pecahan ilmu tersebut boleh dilihat dengan wujudnya pelbagai perguruan gayong di Malaysia

seperti Gayong Patani dan Gayong Pesaka. Tapi yang paling utama ialah Persatuan Silat Seni Gayong Malaysia (PSSGM) yang

diasaskan oleh Dato' Meor Rahman, cucu kepada Daeng Kuning yang digelar 'Mahaguru' oleh penuntut silat gayong.

Antara mereka yang pernah mengamalkan silat gayong ialah allahyarham Mat Kilau, Dato' Bahaman dan Dato' Maharaja Lela.


( ENGLISH ) 

Martial arts is a kind of martial arts are generally recognized as belonging to the original rights of the Malays as a shield yourself. Based on the evidence of the discovery of the remains

history found in Borobodur Temple and Prambanan Temple in Java, it can be concluded that art already exists

This self-defense in the Malay archipelago in the 8th century AD.

Starting from the Riau archipelago, this martial system is said to have spread to Minangkabau, Sumatra. In Sumatra, the art of fighting

this is further refined and known as Pencak Silat. This martial art ever

used by the Srivijaya government (7th century to 14th century) to

expanding his empire. During the reign of Majapahit (13th century to

16th century), martial arts is said to have been

reached the pinnacle of its perfection when the use of weapons was included.

From Minangkabau silat was introduced in the Malay Peninsula through Melaka. In the days of the Malacca Sultanate, only those who are close to

only the palace was given the opportunity to learn martial arts. The art of martial arts is finally here

to the knowledge of the common people and

subsequently became a rural art. Admiral Hang Tuah (Father of Martial Arts

Malay) is said to be learning martial arts from the Adi Putera Gunung Ledang and the Persanta Nala in Java (Majapahit).

In order to perfect martial arts, practitioners must appreciate the philosophy contained in the knowledge.

In the old days almost everyone practiced martial arts. But only a few

who deserves to be called a warrior. Only those with high moral integrity and prudence are able to reach this level.

During this time there were hundreds of martial arts colleges. Every college has its own style and manner

alone. But generally this basic martial arts can be divided into two, namely 'flowers'

and 'fruit'. The art of flowers is a dance movement

which is gentle and graceful as a gesture to confuse the opponent. While the fruit is a hard move,

solid and compact to defeat the opponent. But there are colleges that ignore the art of flowers and only

teaching fruit, for example like Silat Cekak. Her student is required to stand

upright facing the opponent, the counter strike is used only when attacked and even when the shot is already an inch or two from the body.

Silat Gayong brought to Malaya (Malaysia) by a prince named Bugis from Sulawesi Island Daeng Kuning

or called the Black Commander. He along with his six brothers residing in Malaya where all Silat lowered to

his descendants. Currently, the breakdown of knowledge can be seen with the existence of various gayong schools in Malaysia

such as Gayong Patani and Gayong Pesaka. But the most important is the Persatuan Silat Seni Gayong Malaysia (PSSGM) which

was founded by Dato 'Meor Rahman, grandson of Daeng Kuning who was nicknamed' Mahaguru 'by silat gayong students.

Among those who have practiced silat gayong are the late Mat Kilau, Dato 'Bahaman and Dato' Maharaja Lela.

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