# KATA SHOTOKAN #



( Indonesia )

Kata yang berarti bentuk pola atau kembangan juga memiliki arti sebagai filsafat. Kata memainkan peranan yang penting dalam latihan karate. Setiap kata memiliki embusan pola dan arah dan bunkai praktik yang berbeda-beda tergantung dari kata yang sedang diperagakan. Kata dalam karate memiliki

makna dan arti yang berbeda. Bahkan kata juga menggambarkan sesuatu. Inilah kata sebagai filsafat. Oleh sebab itulah kata memiliki peranan yang penting sejak jaman dulu dan menjadi latihan inti dalam karate. Gichin

funakoshi mengambil kata dari perguruan Shorei dan Shorin. Shotokan memiliki 26 kata yang terus dilatih hingga kini. Masing-masing kata mempunyai tingkat kesulitan sendiri-sendiri. Karena itu wajib bagi tiap praktisi Shotokan untuk mengulang berkali-kali bahkan ratusan kali.


( 1 ) Heian shodan = Pinan Nidan

( 2 ) .Heian nidan = Pinan Shodan

( 3 ) .Heian sandan = Pinan Sandan

( 4 ) .Heian Yondan = Pinan Yondan

( 5 ) Heian Godan = Pinan Godan

( 6 ) .Tekki shodan = Naihanchin Shodan

( 7 ) .Tekki Nidan = Naihanchi Nidan

( 8 ) .Tekki Sandan = Naihanchi Sandan

( 9 ) .Bassai dai = Passai

( 10 ) .Kanku Dai = Kushanku

( 11 ) .Enpi = Wanshu

( 12 ) .Jion = Jion

( 13 ) .Jitte = Jitte

( 14 ) .Gankaku = Chinto

( 15 ) Hangetsu = Seishan

( 16 ) .Sochin = Sochin

( 17 ) .Nijushiho = Niseishi

( 18 ) .Chinte = Chinte

( 19 ) .Meikyo = Rohai

( 20 ) .Wankan = Wankan

( 21 ) .Gojushiho Dai = Useishi

( 22 ) .Unsu = Hakko

( 23 ) .Gojushiho Sho

( 24 ) kankusho

( 25 ) Bassai Sho

( 26 ) . Pikiran tenang damai satu

( 27 ) .Pikiran tenang damai dua

( 28 ) .Pikiran tenang damai tiga

( 29 ) . Pikiran tenang damai empat

( 30 ) .Pikiran tenang damai lima

( 31 ) .Satria tunggang kuda satu

( 32 ) .Satria tunggang kuda dua

( 33 ) .Satria tunggang kuda tiga

( 34 ) .Menembus benteng

( 35 ) .Memandang cakrawala

( 36 ) .Burung layang-layang terbang

( 37 ) .Nama biksu budha

( 38 ) .Bertarung 10 tangan

( 39 ) .Bangau diatas batu karang

( 40 ) .Bulan separuh

( 41 ) .Memberikedamaian bagi orang banyak

( 42 ) .24 Langkah

( 43 ) .Tangan yang luar biasa

( 44 ) .Cermin jiwa

( 45 ) .Mahkota raja

( 46 ) .54 langkah besar

( 47 ) .Tangan menyibak awan di angkasa

( 48 ) .54 langkah kecil

( 49 ) .Menatap Langit

( 50 ) .Menembus benteng kecil

Menurut Japan Karatedo Federation (JKF) dan world karatedo federation (WKF), yang dianggap sebagai aliran karate yang utama yaitu :

( 1 ) Shotokan, ( 2 ) . Goju Ryu, ( 3 ) . Shito Ryu, ( 4 ) .Wado Ryu

Keempat aliran tersebut diakui sebagai aliran karate yang utama karena turut serta dalam pembentukan Zen – Nippon Karatedo Renmei / Japan Karatedo Federation dan world Karatedo Federation. Namun aliran karate yang terkenkan di dunia bukan hanya empat aliran diatas itu saja. Beberapa aliran besar seperti Kyokushin, shorin ryu dan Uechi Ryu Karate tersebar luas ke berbagai negara di dunia dan dikenal sebagai aliran karate yang termasyhur, walaupun tidak termasuk dalam “4 besar WKF”. Di negara Jepang, organisasi yang mewadahi olahraga Karate seluruh Jepang adalah Japan Karatedo Federation (JKF). Adapun organisasi yang mewadahi Karate Seluruh dunia adalah WKF (World Karate Fedration) dahulu WUKO World Union of Karatedo Organizations). Ada pula ITKF (International Traditional Karate Federation) yang mewadahi karate tradisional. Adapun fungsi dari JKF dan WKF adalah terutama untuk meneguhkan Sport Karate yang bersifat Non Contact, berbeda dengan aliran Kyokushin atau Daidojuku yang full body Contack. Adapun ciri khas dan latar belakang dari berbagai aliran Karate yang termasuk dalam “4 besar JKF” adalah sebagai berikut :

( 1 ) .Shotokan

Shotokan dapat diterjemahkan sebagai Perguruan Gichin Funakoshi. Gichin Funakoshi merupakan pelopor yang membawa ilmu karate dari Okinawa ke Jepang. Aliran Shotokan merupan akumulasi dan sandarisasi dari berbagai perguruan karate di Okinawa yang pernah dipelajari oleh Gichin Funakoshi. Berpegang pada konsep Ichigeki Hisatsu, yaitu satu gerakan dapat membunuh lawan. Shotokan menggunakan kuda-kuda yang rendah serta pukulan dan tangkisan yang keras. Gerakan shotokan cenderung/frontal, sehingga praktisi Shotokan berani langsung beradu pukulan dan tangkisan dengan lawan.

( 2 ) .Goju Ryu

Goju memiliki arti keras lembut. Aliran ini memadukan teknik keras dan teknik lembut, dan merupakan salah satu perguruan karate tradisional di Okinawa yang memiliki sejarah yang panjang. Dengan meningkatnya popularitas Karate di Jepang (Setelah masuknya Shotokan ke Jepang) Aliran Goju ini dibawa ke Jepang oleh Chojun Miyagi. Chojun Miyagi memperbaharui banyak teknik – teknik aliran ini menjadi aliran Goju Ryu, sehingga banyak orang menganggap Chojun Miyagi sebagai pendiri Goju Ryu. Berpegang pada konsep bahwa “dalam pertarungan yang sesungguhnya, kita harus bisa menerima dan membalas pukulan”. Sehingga Goju Ryu menekankan pada latihan SANCHIN atau pernapasan dasar, agar para praktisinya dapat memberikan pukulan yang dahsyat dan menerima pukulan dari lawan tanpa terluka. Goju Ryu menggunakan tangkisan yang bersifat circular serta senang melakukan peraturan jarak rapat.

( 3 ) .Shito Ryu

Aliran Shito Ryu terkenal dengan keahlian bermain KATA, terbukti dari banyaknya KATA yang diajarkan di aliran Shito Ryu, yaitu adalah 43 Kata, lebih banyak dari aliran lain. Sebagai perbandingan, Shotokan memiliki 26, Wado memiliki 17, Goju Memiliki 12 Kata. Dalam pertarungan, ahli Karate Shito – Ryu dapat menyesuaikan diri dengan kondisi, mereka bisa bertarung seperi Shotokan secara frontal, maupun dengan jarak rapat seperti Goju.

( 4 ) Wado – Ryu

Wado Ryu adalah aliran karate yang unik karena berakar pada seni beladiri Sindro Yoshin Ryu Jujutsu, sebuah aliran beladiri Jepang yang memiliki teknik kuncian persendian dan lemparan. Sehingga Wado Ryu selain mengajarkan tekhnik Karate juga mengajarkan teknik kuncian dan / bantingan Jujutsu. Didalam pertarangan, ahli Wado Ryu menggunakan prinsip Jujutsu yaitu tidak mau mengadu tenaga secara frontal, lebih banyak menggunakan tangkisan yang bersifat mengalir (bukan tangkisan keras), dan terkadang menggunakan teknik Jujutsui seperti bantingan dan sapuan kaki untuk menjatuhkan lawan. Akan tetapi, dalam pertandingan FORKI dan JKF, para praktisi Wado Ryu juga mampu menyelesaikan diri dengan peraturan yang ada dan berbanding tanpa menggunakan jurus-jurus Jujutsu tersebut. Sedangkan aliran lain yang besar walaupun tidak termasuk dalam 4” besar JKF” antara lain adalah :


( 1 ) Kyokushin

Kyokushin termasuk dalam 4 besar Japan Karatedo Federation. Akan tetapi, aliran ini sangat terkenal baik didalam maupun diluar Jepang, serta turut berjasa mempopulerkan Karate di seluruh dunia, terutama pada tahun 1970an. Aliran ini didirikan oleh Sensai Masutatsu Oyama. Nama Kyokushin mempunyai arti kebenaran tertinggi. Aliran ini menganut sistem Budo Karate, dimana praktisi-praktisinya dituntut untuk berani melakukan full body contact kumite, yakni tanpa perlindungan, untuk mendalami arti yang sebenarnya dari seni bela diri karate serta melatih jiwa/semangat keprajuritan (budo). Aliran ini juga menerapkan hyakunin kumite (Kumite 100 orang) sebagai ujian tertinggi, dimana karateka diuji melakukan 100 kumite berturut-turut sensai Masutatsu oyama sendiri telah melakukan kumite 200 orang. Adalah umum bagi praktisi aliran ini untuk melakukan 5-10 kumite berturut-turut.

( 2 ) Shorin Ryu

Aliran ini adalah aliran Karate yang asli berasal dari Okinawa. Didirikan oleh Shoshin Nagamine yang didasarkan pada ajaran Yasutsume Anko Itoso, seorang guru Karate abad ke 19 yang juga adalah guru dari Gichin Funakoshi, selain Azato. Dapat dimaklumi bahwa gerakan Shorin Ryu banyak persamaannya dengan shotokan. Perbedaan yang mencolok adalah bahwa Shorin Ryu juga mengajarkan bermacam – macam senjata, seperti Nunchaku, Kama dan Rokushaku Bo.

( 3 ) Uechi Ryu

Aliran ini adalah aliran karate yang paling banyak menerima pengaruh dari bela diri China, karena pencipta aliran ini, Kanbun Uechi, belajar beladiri langsng diprovinsi Fujian D China. Oleh karena itu, gerakan dari aliran Uechi Ryu Karate sangat mirip dengan kungfu aliran Fujian, terutama aliran Baihequen (Bangau putih).





English ) 

The word which means the form of pattern or development also has a meaning as a philosophy. The word plays an important role in karate training. Each word has a puff of patterns and directions and a bunk of practice that varies depending on the word being demonstrated. The word in karate has

different meanings and meanings. Even words also describe something. This is the word as philosophy. That is why the word has an important role since ancient times and has become a core exercise in karate. Gichin

funakoshi took the word from the Shorei and Shorin colleges. Shotokan has 26 words that continue to be trained until now. Each word has its own difficulty level. Because it is obligatory for each Shotokan practitioner to repeat many times or even hundreds of times.


(1) Heian shodan = Pinan Nidan

(2). Heian nidan = Pinan Shodan

(3). Hanian sandan = Pinan Sandan

(4). Heian Yondan = Pinan Yondan

(5) Heian Godan = Pinan Godan

(6). Tekki shodan = Naihanchin Shodan

(7). Tekki Nidan = Naihanchi Nidan

(8). Tekki Sandan = Naihanchi Sandan

(9). Basai dai = Passai

(10). My Dai Dai = My Kush

(11). Enpi = Wanshu

(12) .Jion = Jion

(13). Jitte = Jitte

(14). My gank = Chinto

(15) Hangetsu = Seishan

(16). Soochin = Sochin

(17). Nijushiho = Niseishi

(18). Chinte = Chinte

(19). Meikyo = Rohai

(20). Wankan = Wankan

(21). Gojushiho Dai = Useishi

(22) .Unsu = Hakko

(23). Gojushiho Sho

(24) kankusho

(25) Bassai Sho

(26). Peace of mind calm one

(27). Peace of mind peacefully two

(28). Peace of mind three calm

(29). Peace of mind calm four

(30). Peace of mind five calm

(31). Knight riding one

(32). The two-horse Knight

(33). The three-horse Knight

(34). Penetrates the fortress

(35). Look at the horizon

(36). Flying kites

(37) The name of a Buddhist monk

(38). Fight 10 hands

(39). Mangrove on a rock

(40). Month and a half

(41). Give peace to many people

(42) .24 Steps

(43) .Excellent hand

(44). Mirror of the soul

(45) .The king's crown

(46) .54 large steps

(47) .Hands open the clouds in the sky

(48) .54 small steps

(49). Staring at the sky

(50) Penetrates a small fortress

According to the Japan Karatedo Federation (JKF) and the World Karatedo Federation (WKF), which are considered to be the main karate schools, namely:

(1) Shotokan, (2). Goju Ryu, (3). Shito Ryu, (4). Wado Ryu

These four streams are recognized as the main karate school because they participated in the formation of the Zen - Nippon Karatedo Renmei / Japan Karatedo Federation and the world Karatedo Federation. But the karate flow that is known in the world is not just the four streams above. Some large streams such as Kyokushin, shorin ryu and Uechi Ryu Karate are widely spread to various countries in the world and are known as the famous karate flow, although they are not included in the "Big 4 WKF". In Japan, the organization that houses Karate throughout Japan is the Japan Karatedo Federation (JKF). The organization that houses Karate All over the world is WKF (World Karate Fedration) formerly WUKO World Union of Karatedo Organizations). There is also the ITKF (International Traditional Karate Federation) which houses traditional karate. The function of JKF and WKF is mainly to strengthen Sport Karate which is Non Contact, different from Kyokushin or Daidojuku's full body Contack flow. The characteristics and backgrounds of the various Karate traditions included in the "4 major JKF" are as follows:

(1) .Shotokan

Shotokan can be translated as Gichin Funakoshi School. Gichin Funakoshi was a pioneer who brought karate from Okinawa to Japan. The Shotokan School is an accumulation and sandarization of various karate schools in Okinawa that Gichin Funakoshi has studied. Stick to the Ichigeki Hisatsu concept, which is one move can kill your opponent. Shotokan uses low horses and hard punches and defenses. Shotokan movements tend to be / frontal, so that Shotokan practitioners dare to directly compete with blows and fights with opponents.

(2). Goju Ryu

Goju has a hard, soft meaning. This flow combines hard and soft techniques, and is one of the traditional karate colleges in Okinawa which has a long history. With the increasing popularity of Karate in Japan (after Shotokan's entry into Japan) this Goju flow was brought to Japan by Chojun Miyagi. Chojun Miyagi updated many of these flow techniques into the Goju Ryu school, so that many people considered Chojun Miyagi to be the founder of Goju Ryu. Stick to the concept that "in a real fight, we must be able to accept and respond to blows". So that Goju Ryu emphasizes the practice of SANCHIN or basic breathing, so that the practitioners can give a fierce blow and take a punch from your opponent without getting hurt. Goju Ryu uses a circular deterrent and likes to conduct tight spacing rules.

(3). Shito Ryu

Shito Ryu's school is famous for its skill in playing KATA, as evidenced by the large number of KATA taught in the Shito Ryu school, which is 43 words, more than any other school. In comparison, Shotokan has 26, Wado has 17, Goju has 12 words. In battle, Karate Shito-Ryu experts can adapt to the conditions, they can fight like Shotokan frontally, or with tight distances like Goju.

(4) Wado - Ryu

Wado Ryu is a unique karate school because it is rooted in the Sindro Yoshin Ryu Jujutsu martial art, a Japanese martial art that has a joint locking and throwing technique. So Wado Ryu besides teaching Karate techniques also teaches locking techniques and / or kickback Jujutsu. In battle, Wado Ryu's expert uses the principle of Jujutsu, which is not willing to compete power frontally, uses more flowing (not hard), and sometimes uses Jujutsui techniques such as kicks and footsteps to bring down opponents. However, in the FORKI and JKF competition, Wado Ryu practitioners were also able to resolve themselves with the existing rules and compare without using the Jujutsu moves. While other large flows, although not included in the 4 "large JKF" include:


(1) Kyokushin

Kyokushin is included in the top 4 Japan Karatedo Federation. However, this genre is very well known both inside and outside Japan, and contributed to popularize Karate throughout the world, especially in the 1970s. This stream was founded by Sensai Masutatsu Oyama. The name Kyokushin has the highest meaning of truth. This flow adheres to the Karo Karate system, where practitioners are required to be brave to do full body contact kumite, ie without protection, to explore the true meaning of karate martial arts and train the soul / spirit of soldiering (budo). This flow also applies hyakunin kumite (Kumite 100 people) as the highest test, where karateka is tested to do 100 consecutive kumites. Masutatsu oyama's own sensation has carried out a kumite of 200 people. It is common for practitioners of this genre to do 5-10 consecutive kumites.

(2) Shorin Ryu

This flow is the original Karate flow originating from Okinawa. Founded by Shoshin Nagamine based on the teachings of Yasutsume Anko Itoso, a 19th-century Karate teacher who was also a teacher of Gichin Funakoshi, besides Azato. It is understandable that Shorin Ryu's movements have many similarities with shotokan. A striking difference is that Shorin Ryu also teaches a variety of weapons, such as Nunchaku, Kama and Rokushaku Bo.

(3) Uechi Ryu

This stream is the karate school that receives the most influence from Chinese martial arts, because the creator of this school, Kanbun Uechi, learned martial arts directly in Fujian Province D China. Therefore, the movements of the Uechi Ryu Karate school are very similar to those of the Fujian style, especially the Baihequen (white heron) flow.

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